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Reactive Power Capability of Full converter Wind Generation systems (FCWGs) Case Solution & Answer

Reactive Power Capability of Full converter Wind Generation systems (FCWGs) Case Study Solution

Introduction and Literature Review

  1. Background

Electricity is the necessity of the modern world. The demand for electricity world wide have made the engineers and the stakeholders to find new ways of producing electricity. The resources in the world are finite and the electricity usage is increasing day by day. This situation can lead to a serious shortage in the supply of electricity. The alternate ways for the production of electricity are well researched, documented and published on the internet.

This study will shed some light on the production of electricity through wind turbines and its usage. The power is computed by the product of current and voltage. Usually when the current waveform has a 90-degree phase shift from the waveform of voltage the power is named as reactive power. The main reason for this lag is the various inductive or capacitive load present in the power producing grid connected conventionally in the power plants.

The concerned engineers and researchers are finding ways to utilize or sterilize this reactive power in electricity production. The researches have been conducted on the availability and capability of this reactive power generated by the conventional electricity grids and wind generations systems of electricity. The increase in the wind power generations have reduced the number of connected conventional power plants and can easily take over in the coming years.

The main reason for this study is to investigate the proficiency of reactive power. The reactive power that is generated simultaneously with active power from a wind generation unit can be used if certain modifications are made and it could have a lot of applications.

  1. How Wind Produce Power

The working principles for electricity generation for wind can be given in two steps. The kinetic energy of the air is converted into mechanical energy with various means and then the electromechanical energy is produced using a generator. The important work is done by blades present in the wind turbine. These blades are designed in two different ways. Drag type uses the wind speed to make sure that the blades rotate and produce a higher torque movement but with slow speed. Lift type shapes the blades in such a way that the air takes more time to cross over a whole blade producing a lower air pressure at leading tail and higher air pressure on the tail edge of the blade. This pressure results in the movements of the blade with an increased speed which is instrumental for the production of electricity. The electricity is produced when a generator is connected to the shaft of the generator. The generator is connected in such a way that when the blades move, it makes a rotor to induce electromagnetic waves which in turn produces electricity.

  1. Wind Turbines

The power is generated through a power source that is assumed to have a full conversion rate hence named full converter wind power generator. But the power is generated using wind turbines which can be classified into various categories. Few of these categories are,

Type 1: The simplest form where the generator generally a squirrel-cage IG is linked which the blade at one end and the transformer at another end which is used to step up the output from the generator.

Type 2: this type is an extension to the type 1 but it includes a variable resistor connected with the generator.

Type 3: this type modifies the type 2 by replacing the resistor in type 2 with a variable frequency exciter. This type generally uses doubly fed, induction or asynchronous generators.

Type 4: this type is useful for the power generation grid as it produces and supplies the electricity directly to the grid using back to back frequency converter on a full scale.

Type 5: this type used a fully controlled modification of the typical WTG, using devices known as variable speed drive train, torque/speed converter which converts the speed of the rotor shaft into a constant sped.

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