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Political Philosophy Case Solution & Answer

Political Philosophy Case Solution

PART A

  1. Outline Aristotle’s taxonomy of governments. What is the most important distinction between good and bad governments in this analysis? What does this tell you about what Aristotle means by “man is by nature political”?

ANSWER:

Aristotle’s view on politics offers analysis of the types of political communities that existed in his time and shows where and how these ancient cities fail to become righteous communities.Aristotle described the taxonomy of states or governments into two principles:

  1. The number of individuals who practice supreme power;
  2. The ends they pursue to help self-interest or help of the community.

According to him, a state exists for the good of its members, to provide benefits to its community. If the power of state is exercised for the good or benefits of its people then we can say that the state is in a good form.

He distinguished between the good and the bad government by sharing his view. Aristotle’s view was that when the rulers or the leaders of the state aimed at the good of the community, only then the states or government would be in its pure form. But when the rulers or the leader of the state or governmentbecame self-interested, selfish or self-centered, then the state would be called a perverted or corrupt state.

Aristotle further stated that, if power resides in one individual, it is called a Monarchy and its corrupt form is called oppression. But if power exists in minority proportion of the population, it is then called an aristocracy or nobility. If minority uses the control or power of the state for its own selfish or self-centered ends, it is then called oligarchy. If the sovereign power exists in a majority proportion of the population, it is then called a polity and perverted form of polity can also be named as“Democracy”.

Table below summarizes Aristotle’s view of governments:

 

Condition Normal Perverted
State ruled by one Monarchy Tyranny
State ruled by a few Aristocracy Oligarchy
State ruled by many Polity Democracy

Aristotle insists that by nature man is a political animal. He believed in this statement because, according to him a man is a social creature. Man has the power of speech and can provide ethical reasoning to anything.Aristotle’s statement that “man is by nature political” or “man is a political animal” can be taken in many ways. One interpretation of this statement is that man is naturally very social and that naturally a human is drawn towards several of political associations. Man like to associate itself with any form of politics in one way or another, just to gratify their social needs.Another interpretation or understanding of Aristotle’s statement considers the word “political” less generous.In this interpretation of the statement that “man by nature is political” it is considered that since politics is mostly based upon threats and violence, the statement is actually-emphasizing that the “animal” side of human nature is rather-sane and helpful side. In short, here Aristotle is talking about men, who turn their back on the any sort of violence that is integral in politics. Such humans or individuals also turn their back on society; they don’t associate themselves with any tribe.

  1. What is a nation? Does allegiance to a nation always imply “nationalism”? Finally, what might be some of the main threats to nations in an era of globalization?

ANSWER:

 A nation can be defined as a territory where the residents of that land are led by a selected government. The term “nation” can also refer to a group of individuals who share the same history, have same traditions and culture and, often speak the same language.In 1996 a researcher defined nation as, a human group sensible enough to start a community. Community that is made up of individuals sharing a mutual culture, devoted to an-established territory, having a mutual past and demanding the right to rule themselves is called a nation(Guibernau, 1996).

Following are the 3 characteristics of a nation:

  1. Aforethought enough to protect itself against its opponents and keep law and order maintained within its boundaries.
  2. People who share religion, language, traditions, culture, way of life and have common interest etc.
  • Individuals of the nation are proud to be a part of its community. They are usually full of patriotism or nationalism.

Allegiance to a nation does not always imply nationalism because of globalization. Nationalism can be defined as a movement or way of thinking that endorses that some groups of individuals-should be free to rule themselves without any outer interference. It is an idea that promotes the benefits of a group of people, especially with the aim of attaining and upholding the nation’s rule. Nationalism further purposes to build and maintain a single national identity, based on mutual ethnicity, location, language, politics, religion, traditions, history etc.However, it is uncommon to find a nation with a straightforward and similar character in terms of this list of possibilities.

Globalization has many extents,

  • economic,
  • political,
  • cultural and,

Globalization negatively affects the poor nations or countries. Some of the threats to nations are listed below.

  • The growth of international trade is worsening income discrimination’s, both between and within developed and under developed nations
  • The benefits globalization is not worldwide; the wealthier are getting rich and the underprivileged are becoming poorer.
  • Rivalry among emerging countries to appeal foreign investment leads to a race to the bottom-most
  • Setting up businesses and industries in the emerging nations by established countries affect badly to the economy of the developed countries and increase unemployment…………………..
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