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Medical Research Case Solution & Answer

Medical Research Case Solution 

Introduction

Background:

Pandemic has created distressing changes around the globe. It affected the way of doing business and SOPs that also changed the operational cycles of industries. It also affected business strategies of companies. Government in every country imposed lock-down changed companies also followed the same rules and regulations, it was for the betterment of people and saving their lives (1). This pandemic worked as a game changer for the industries work place environment drastically changed, homes became new offices for employees, and online workplace system emerged during lock-down, these changes reduced the employee motivation. Pandemic affected the leadership style of management and also changed the organizational structure(2).

Electronic virtual clinic, also known as “telemedicine” or “Telehealth” is defined as the remote delivery of healthcare using visual and auditory communication technology [2].

Before COVID-19 the implementation of electronic virtual clinic in medicine generally and neurology particularly had several barriers including difficult physical examinations, medico-legal concerns, lack of the resources to apply this practice widespread because of costs of application and reimbursement barriers [3]. However, with the occurrence of the corona-virus pandemic the demand for implementation of the electronic virtual clinic became a mandatory issue that forces all healthcare professional to try to overcome barriers to use telehealth in their clinical practice in neurology and other different specialties [4].

Electronic virtual clinic was not widely assessed the COVID-19 [5]. However, with the widespread pandemic it became an essential component of the healthcare by decreasing demand on stressed health care structure and allowing health care requirements to be met at home while reducing contact between patients and medical staff [6,7].

The demand for telehealth increased and it enhanced the ability of healthcare professionals to ensure the supply that meet the patient’s demand [8].

In the beginning of March, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services established telemedicine payment parity with in-person visits, suspended licensure and malpractice insurance restrictions, and waived the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations regarding video visits to limit barriers to widespread adoption of telemedicine [9].

Several studies assessed the level of patient satisfaction with the application of electronic virtual clinics in several specialties. One study showed a 40-times increase in the application of virtual clinic in the field of neurosurgery with great satisfaction among patients [10]. Also, a great patient satisfaction scores were recorded in non-neurosurgical patients [11–15].

Patients reported several factors that increased their satisfaction as convenience, accessibility, reduced waiting and travel time, and reduced travel-related expenses [2]. Particularly, patients who had to travel for long periods were greatly interested in the experience of telemedicine application to the clinical practice increased travel requirements have been satisfied with remote care [16].

Electronic virtual clinics was previously used in the States to enhance delivery of the healthcare services to patients living in underserved and remote areas [17].

The increasing availability of personal technology (89% have internet access, 77% are online daily)[18] offers patients and clinicians the opportunity to utilize real-time virtual communication to enhance access for patients when transportation challenges, schedules, or physical disability make office visits difficult in any geography [19].

In spite of face-to-face interactions which are preferred in some circumstances by patients or clinicians, the convenience of accessing healthcare consultations from home or office may save lost time at home or work, travel time, and missed and rescheduled appointments [20-24].

Understanding the perceived relative value of different modes of healthcare services may help to shape the use of electronic virtual clinical practices [25,26].

Effective population health management is a balancing act that requires consideration of patient needs and preferences for more flexible and timely access to consultation, accountability to payers by managing high costs, and understanding how to leverage new technologies [27,28]. System learning that demonstrates the value of different types of “visits” for the system and the patient is essential [29].

Telemedicine visits may be used with established patients for follow-up care without a loss of patient satisfaction with communication with providers and with enhanced convenience and reduced travel time; a majority may be willing to pay standard co-pays or more for this convenience [30]. Clinicians see value in this new mode of care to enhance connections with patients [30]. Previous studies showed acceptable satisfaction and positive attitude of patients toward telemedicine programs in Saudi Arabia. However, the authors recommend that more effort should be done by the Saudi Ministry of Health to increase the knowledge of patients about telecommunication available services [31]. Another study revealed high level of satisfaction with virtual clinics in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic despite the service being relatively new in healthcare service in the country. The study demonstrated that satisfaction was linked to age, gender, education, and the type of clinic used [32]. However, to our knowledge no previous studies assessed the level of patient’s satisfactions in neurology clinics in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we hope to contribute to filling the gap in the literature around electronic virtual clinics in specific departments, namely in the neurology clinics in Saudi Arabia.

Research Problem

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic greatly affected the clinical practice of neurology and opened a new vision towards the application of virtual clinic in the clinical practice. The application of electronic virtual clinic in the field of neurology was aimed at patient protection with providing safe environment to the healthcare providers [1]. Pandemic created a dilemma worldwide for health care to continue the health care services for patients. In 1990. The concept of telemedicine was started in 1990 and it was started to reach rural areas but after pandemic outbreak this concept started prevailing in the health care industry again. Telemedicine is defined as the services that hospital provide through the use of technology to remote patients (3). As this remote service reduced face to face interaction between patients and health care facilitators and this option was cheaper and easy to opt for (4).

Research Question

  • To extend the patients of neurology are satisfied toward electronic virtual clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives of the Study:

  • To assess the level of patient satisfaction toward electronic virtual clinics held in 2020 in the neurology department, King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • To explore possible effects of demographic characteristics on patient satisfaction toward these electronic virtual clinics……………
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