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Field Analysis Report Rstudio Assignment Case Solution & Answer

Field Analysis Report Rstudio Assignment Case Study Solution

Introduction

Coral diseases have affected the corals and damaged the living tissues, which often results in the death of the whole colony or a part of the colony. The occurrence ratio of these diseases is more frequent in the twenty first century as compared to the previous centuries. The existence of such disease is generally occurring because of the biological stresses, such as: viruses, bacteria and fungi, and the non-biological stresses, such as:an increase in the sea surface temperature (SST), pollutants and ultra violet radiation.(National Occean Service, 2020).

The natural process of coral disease is caused by the two kind of stressors, which are biotic and non-biotic, but there are some other factors that cause the outbreak of the disease.(Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2020). Living organism is the main cause of the biotic stressors, such as the pathogen and parasite, while the environmental stressors is the main cause of the non-biotic stressors, such as: temperature, surface, lights or changes in the salinity etc. In addition to this, the causes related with the outbreak of coral disease are complex and non-understandable. There are some important drivers of coral disease, which are:(Reef Resilience Network, 2020)

  1. Climate warming.
  2. And, Anthropogenic Stressors, which include the sedimentation, land-based pollution, human use of environment and over fishing

In addition to this, the morality rate in coral disease due to the climate associated stress, has been increased in the twenty first century, because the oceans are warmer and more acidotic than before. In addition to this, it has also increased the rate of  coral bleaching and infectious diseases,which is related to the average temperature sea level(Cheryl M. Woodley, 2016). Although the outlook for corals is uncertain, recent studies have shown that physiological mechanisms can improve adaptability from corals to climate change. Certain groups of bleached corals may increase the consumption of heterotrophic foods and replace symbionts with more heat-resistant clades. This plasticity may increase the likelihood of withstanding the lethal heat effect.(Laura D. Mydlarz, 2010).

Therefore, the aim of this research is twofold: on one hand, to combine the traditional microbial tools (such as biochemical and molecular culture methods) in order to determine a possible pathogen of white syndrome that is spreading in the Pacific.Second, examine the cause of white syndrome(Yu, 2010). In order to propose the development of new diagnostic tools; the plan can be implemented and validated in an active management plan for coral reef health, with an aim of “preventing diseases within the framework of ecosystem management.”(Richardson, 1998).

Since the year 2003, several white syndromes under various names have been reported in several places in the Pacific region. It is recommended to use a general term: white syndrome (WS), used as the Pacific scleral coral disease, which shows an acute tissue loss and exposes white bones without other signs of the disease or established causal conditions. For the three-year study (2003-2006), three independent WS outbreaks were selected to determine if WS was a single disease or a set of multiple diseases, and whether a standard disease testing plan could be developed to monitor and manage the future work.(Meir Sussman, 2008).

The Research Question is “How is disease incidence influenced by sea surface temperature?

The Null Hypothesis is “There is no relationship that disease incidence influenced by sea surface temperature.

The Alternate Hypothesis is “There is a relationship that disease incidence influenced by sea surface temperature………………………………

 

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