The Development and Implementation of M2M (Machine-to-Machine) Communication in the Manufacturing Industry Case Study Help


1.1       Problem Statement

M Tool manufacturing and its measuring equipment are not set up as Machine to Machine (M2M) communications. At M Tool, human intervention causes an inaccurate troubleshooting, which creates a product, not within specification. Through improvements of M2M, it will be determined if grinders and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) will reduces crap dollars, reduce downtime hours, and improve the production efficiency after implementation. Setting up Artificial Intelligence, which is a sub-division of Virtual Reality between manufacturing and measuring equipment, “M2M communication will boost innovation, such as: smart factories and networked cars” (Weyrich, 2014)

1.2       Background

The utilization of the communication technologies in regards to ubiquitous connectivity between machines or devices has been achieving significant importance. (Yasir Mehmood, 2015) Machine to Machine Communication is a technological innovation, facilitating direct communication between devices through the use of any communication channel, inclusive of both wired and wireless communication channels. Machine to Machine technology falls under the Industry 4.0 category. Industry 4.0 is known to bring efficiency, flexibility and sustainability in the manufacturing process through intelligence and communication, resulting in an increased competitiveness. The term industry 4.0 is generally considered as the fourth industrial revolution or promotion of internet technological approaches in the manufacturing industry turning factories, with an increased intelligence, improved resource efficiency, ergonomics and adaptability. (Lidong Wanga, 2016)

As it is regarded as an integral technological approach of Internet of Things, allowing automatic information exchange. (Adam Sanders, 2016) Machine to Machine technology incorporates industrial instrumentation, which makes a sensor or a meter able to communicate the data, which records to application software. Industrial instrumentation adjusts industrial processes, such as: troubleshooting and ensuring the correct specification of products is attained. (Yan Lu, 2016)

A number of reports have been represented in order to represent the forecast of the market growth based on the improvement in the volume of M2M device. Some of the recent forecasts have significantly predicted an increase in the number of cellular-based M2M devices across the world.Thus, M2M services have turned out to be one of the key motivations behind the remarkable growth in the mobile traffic. The cellular systems are known to be primarily designed for supporting the exponential growth of human-to-human and human-to-machine traffic through enabling significant improvement in the broadband services. (Yasir Mehmood, 2015)

The interface of machine to machine communication provides an access to monitor, control and manage the machines or remote equipment. This allows the business organizations to address the issues of maintenance and restore functions. (A.Kaklauskas, 2016) The machine to machine communications are known for the provision of information regarding the maintenance of particular needs and their requirement to the product developers. This is known to bring a significant improvement in the products’ efficiency and the satisfaction of the consumers. For such reasons, the applications of machine to machine communications have been significant in the areas, like: manufacturing industry, environmental monitoring, intelligent transportation systems, e-healthcare, home area networks smart grids and many others. (Pawan Kumar Verma, 2016)

Furthermore, despite the uniqueness in the deployment of each particular machine to machine communication system; there are four common stages that are considered in each application of M2M:

  • Data collection.
  • Data transmission through a communication network.
  • Data assessment.
  • Responding to the available information.(V. Galetić, 2011)

M Tool is experiencing a challenge in inaccurate troubleshooting from the human workforce, which leads towards an inaccurate product manufacturing.

1.3       General Information

The Machine to Machine communication is generally referred to as a new concept, which has been originated from the telemetry technology that is utilized for the measurement of data and automatic transmission of data through remote sources, such as: radio, wire and others. The paradigm of M2M is known to offer its users with a plethora of opportunities to lead the development of the cases of their novel business and bringing an improvement in the ongoing business operations. The transformation of many of the industries was primarily based on the business, which are known to result from the changes in the engineering market that are mainly driven through a substantial improvement of the pervasiveness of machine to machine communication. (V. Galetić, 2011)

Machine to Machine Communication is used to connect daily existing objects and offers a way for non-human content providers to feed machines data in different formats, which are not accurately done by human power. ( (Weyrich, 2014)) stated in their paper: “M2M communication will boost innovation, such as: smart factories and networked cars.” The results of future research indicates that the usage of M2M communication technology will transform M Tool into a smart factory. Because manufacturers have been experiencing rapid changes in the supply chain ranging from small lot sizes to the process of customization, serving as a key driver to enforce and enable the manufacturers’ adaptive and smart manufacturing systems and an efficient utilization of information.

Therefore, the key capabilities of smart manufacturing systems mainly include: sustainability, productivity, quality and agility. The smart manufacturing system is followed by a set of three dimensions, i.e. product, production system and business allowing the organization to enable an advanced control as well as optimal decisions of the business operations both at the manufacturing plant and the organization. The integration of smart manufacturing system would not only bring improvement in the manufacturing agility but would also bring significant reduction in the manufacturing cost.  (Yan Lu, 2016)

Operators, within manufacturing plants of smart machinery installed, use wireless pads that connect to the manufacturing systems for purposes of diagnosing and general oversight of the manufacturing processes. The tools make effortless running manufacturing firms while at the same time require less workforce. Various manufacturing companies that have not adopted smart machinery find themselves part of situations whereby human intervention causes inaccurate troubleshooting, which creates a product, not within specification.

The improvements of M2M between grinders and CMM’s results will be useful for the reduction of scrap dollars, reduced downtime hours and an improved productivity efficiency as well as the quality of life. ( (Yan Lu, 2016)). However, the manufacturing of industrial internet of things applications tend to demonstrate specificities that represent the capability of distinguishing it from other scenarios of internet of things, in the machine communication. Thus, the envisioned manufacturing systems has the capability of empowering the collaborative manufacturing that is known to result in an improved production flexibility and variability, followed by the reduced interventions of humans. (Zhaozong Meng, 2017)

1.4       Summary

Sanders, Elangewaran &Wulfsberg state, “Industry 4.0 significantly influences the production environment with radical changes in the execution of operations”. The workforce is not going to be replaced by robots or artificial intelligence, but will be changing the type of careers; the workforce will have in the future. (Sanders, 2016)


2.1       Review of Literature

Studies, as shown later, have supported the efficiency that M2M technology has inflicted upon the manufacturing industry. The study communicates problems instantaneously, thus making it possible for the companies to put preventative with Lu, Morris & Frechette (2016) maintains the rapid advances in the manufacturing industry call for the integration of technological innovations to aid in facilitating quick andefficient processes. The authors note that M2M technology has turned out to be an indispensable tool for every manufacturing firm, fostering efficiency while at the same time lowering the costs.  (Yan Lu, 2016)

Lu, Morris & Frechette (2016) indicate the use of the human workforce in the ongoing evaluation of the performance of every system within a firm, is a thing of the past and is incomparable to M2M technology.  Machine to Machine employs advanced sensors and chips when monitoring the general performance of each machine, within a factory and troubleshoots problems that arise from monitoring. Cases, where machines cannot rectify a defect on their own; M2M technology has the capability of communicating the information to devices, such as: smartphones and tablets, which make adjustments remotely. Monitoring makes the data uncomplicated for the employees to note where the problem emerges from and thus resolving that  problem quickly, thus making manufacturing faster and more “efficient, flexible, and sustainable through communication and intelligence “(Wang & Wang 2016, p. 1).

According to Walder (2019), M2M enhances the performance and productivity of a company. Machine to Machine connected devices spot warning signs and maintenance tasks to take care of the state of machines, thus lengthening their efficiency and longevity. Machine to Machine technologies facilitate manufacturing firms, utilizing tracking product shipments, the conditions for storage and even inventory. The sensors, of M2M, technology ease monitoring the condition and specification of specific products. (Lidong Wanga, 2016)

A study conducted by Sanders, Elangeswaran & Wulfsberg concluded that “despite the fact that M2M technology is fairly new, and has already proved to be extremely productive and a positive impact it has in the manufacturing industry.” On the other hand, Lu, Morris, and Frechette (2016) note that the concept of smart machines and plant networks is not new; the concept has been existent for years. However, what is new in the current industry is how the machines, networks, and devices are communicating.

Currently, the machines have the capability of using the data collected or generated and direct or even coordinate other machines while passing instructions and specifications to workers, which results in a more restructured and responsive environment that facilitates opportunities for eliminating errors and minimizing manufacturing costs (Wired M2M technologies have been available for a more extended period compared to wireless technologies. Also, wired technologies are the ones used for numerous manufacturing companies. A challenge associated of wired technologies is that the technologies are “static in their set up basing on the kind of wiring scheme employed as others are costly to change.

Moreover, well designed demanding structures and topologies are created and set up, without knowing what the future holds in terms of demands”. (Yan Lu, 2016) Therefore, regardless of the importance of cables within the current communication, their future is questionable when thinking of the needs that will be there for the future. Conversely, wireless M2M communication is an accepted practice within the production and manufacturing industry. Machine to Machine technology drawing from the case of WLAN and RFID are cheaper and easier to either install or operate regardless of the distance. “However, they have been found to be ineffective within the production and manufacturing industry as they do not satisfy the needs within this niche” (Weyrich, 2014)

According to Ennesser & Ganem (2015), human interactions play a critical role in causing inaccurate troubleshooting that can make and create a product within a specification. The creation of erroneous troubleshooting is the reason why M Tool manufacturing and its measuring equipment are not set up as Machine to Machine communications (F.Ennesser, 2015). There is a requirement to create and construct scrupulous connections the devices in a place to ensure that there is full mechanization that is automated where all the tools can play multiple roles to make decisions and action executor.(Gerasimenko, Galinina, Andreev, & Koucheryavy, 2015) Machine to Machine Communication (M2M) is technological innovation facilitating direct communication between devices using any communication channel inclusive of both wired and wireless communication channels.

In terms of manufacturing, a CPS – cyber physical system is considered to represent the capability of combining progresses, which is primarily achieved through the usage of large computing systems to plan, model and predict followed by the power of data. This is mainly generated during the processes of manufacturing by a lot of small data-driven devices, such as: RFID readers, sensors, and actuators. Such devices are primarily enabled through advances in the machine to machine communications and cognitive control systems. (Lidong Wanga, 2016)

M Tool, the company, is experiencing challenges in inaccurate troubleshooting from the human workforce, leads to erroneous product manufacturing. Machine to Machine technology is most suitable to set up production and measuring equipment, thus improving the quality of products manufactured by the company (Yan Lu, 2016) Machine to Machine Communication is used daily to connect existing objects and offers a way for nonhuman content providers to feed machine data in different formats, which are not be accurately done by human power. (Malak, Dhillon, & Andrews, 2016)

The most used network infrastructure used in M2M applications is general packet radio service (GPRS) list the following reasons for this:

  1. “Immediate M2M business entry.
  2. Low cost and convenient deployment.
  3. Ubiquitous and international operability.
  4. Roaming between mobile operators.

GPRS is a proven real-world tested technology, which is also open and standardized.” (Alexiou & Gotsis, 2015)……………………………………..


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